Thyroid problems and its effect on fertility
The prevalence of thyroid disorder is high in 20-45 years age women .Prevalence of auto immunity is seen in patients with PCOS ,women with diminished ovarian reserve and idiopathic infertility.Incidence of overt hypothyroidism is 2-4.5%, hyperthyroidism is 0.5-1% and incidence of thyroid auto immunity is 5-10%.
Thyroid disorders causes irregular menstrual cycles and infertility.
Effects of thyroid problems in males:
It decreases mitochondrial activity , increases oxidative stress and causes sperm abnormalities like decreased sperm count , decreased motility and altered morphology of sperms. Hypothyroidism causes ejaculation problems in males.
Hyperthyroidism causes decreased sexual drive , gynecomastia, erectile dysfunction and premature ejaculation . So in males with erectile and ejaculation problems should be screened for thyroid disorders.
Effect of thyroid problems In females:
Irregular menstural cycles , an-ovulation ,hyperprolactinemia causing delayed mestural cycles and infertility.
Uncontrolled thyroid can cause effects on both mother and fetus during pregnancy.
Females undergoing IVF treatment should increase the dose of thyroid hormone before treatment due to the increasing demand on thyroid during ovarian stimulation. Uncontrolled thyroid can effect oocyte quality, decreased fertilization rate and altered embryo quality and thus effecting the clinical pregnancy rate.
So thyroid problems can effect both male and female fertility.